A secure and functionally usable form of password authentication is passphrases. Passphrases are a combination of words that can be entered as a password. Recent attacks that have resulted in password leaks provide a wealth of knowledge about common password patterns. Passphrases provide a more secure but user-friendly alternative to traditional passwords.
A well-formed passphrase can be far more holistically secure than other password authentication alternatives. This additional security stems from maximising human memorability and cracking complexity in concert with minimising selection guessability, observability and recordability. Passphrases increase usability as they can contain special or unique significance to the user, are more memorable and their length and form can provide significant layers of complexity. Passwords are much easier to crack than passphrases, regardless of their cryptographic protocol. In addition, cracking passwords is becoming progressively easier by harnessing the power of cloud computing and new technology. The approximate time required to brute-force a complex eight character password lies between seconds and days for most cryptographic protocols, whereas for passphrases this time increases exponentially, making passphrases significantly more secure. Passphrases are therefore computationally more challenging to crack than passwords.
Passphrase Generation Recommendations
The following factors are recommended in the generation of secure passphrases.
• Use three or more uncommon words, for example “steep alphabet dawn win”.
• The phrase should not be common, for example a well-known saying or from a film or book.
• Use spaces or special characters between words to further enhance the security. For example, “steep-alphabet-dawn-win” or “steep!alphabet-dawn!win”.
• As with passwords, do not enforce excessive expiry of passphrases to avoid user fatigue that may result in users employing insecure coping strategies that ultimately degrade and diminish security. Enforcing new and distinct passphrase selection every three months should meet the needs of a risk averse organisation.
• A limit of 32 characters will give users freedom to create more secure passphrase word combinations, while not putting excessive demands on existing systems to maintain the data or computational tasks.
• As with complex passwords, secure passphrases should consist of at least two of the following elements however, users should be free to choose from any of these categories:
- Uppercase letters
- Lowercase letters
- Punctuation marks
- Mathematical or other conventional symbols
Passphrase Security Augmentation Elements
In developing a passphrase policy it is crucial that the system is practical for users. This can be achieved by ensuring that verification methods impose a minimal burden on users. To assist in this the following factors should be considered in developing a passphrase policy.
- Memorability: Passphrases must not made overly complex as to be difficult to recall.
- Guessability: Passphrases should be hard to guess. This means family, colleagues, friends and social engineers should not be able to guess passphrases by exploiting the varying degrees of intimacy with a passphrase holder. Passphrases should not contain meaningful dates, pet names, addresses, hobbies, interests or otherwise.
- Observability: Passphrases should be entered easily. If a passphrase is overly time consuming to enter this enhances the ability of shoulder surfers to accurately observe password entry.
- Recordability: Passphrase entry must be secure. Users should become naturally wary of highly observable key press combinations for instance, the passphrase “qwe rty uiop” is highly recordable due to the sequential means of entry on standard keyboards. As characters are being typed into the passphrase field they should also be immediately obfuscated to avoid screen recorders from recording passphrase input. The workstations in use must also be secure to ensure keyloggers are not in operation.
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